Everything You Wanted to Know About CERN and More
From Mitch Battros - Earth Changes Media
and Demons' - Dan Brown's book Angels and Demons is a detective story
about a secret society that wants to destroy
the Vatican using an antimatter
bomb. In the book, the antimatter is stolen from CERN.
For all the conspiracy
enthusiasts out there --- you have to ask yourself one
question. What will you do if absolutely "nothing" unexpected
happens? Hmm, I
guess more onto the next fabrication. But then there's always "Planet-X" :-))
On a more serious note: Readers have asked us even more questions about the
technologies used in the story. Here are
Does CERN exist?
Well, yes, it does. You can see us to the left and slightly up from the centre
of the city of Meyrin.
Is it located in Switzerland?
Part is in Switzerland, part in France across the border.
CERN is not a Swiss
institute, but an international organization. We are very close to Geneva's
What does the acronym CERN mean?
That is a long story, but the name CERN is derived from the French
European pour la Research Nuclear'.
Does it consist of red brick buildings with white-frocked
around carrying files? No, that is rather far from reality; we have mostly white
of concrete and the scientists wear everyday clothes and they
mostly do not carry files.
Was the Web really
invented at CERN as the book states?
Yes, indeed, the Web came from CERN, invented here by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989.
Does antimatter exist?
Yes, it does, and we produce it routinely at CERN. Antimatter was predicted by
Dirac in 1928 and the first antiparticles were discovered soon after by
Carl Anderson. CERN is not the only research
institute to produce and study
How is antimatter contained?
It is very difficult to contain
antimatter, because any contact between a
particle and its anti-particle leads to their immediate annihilation.
For electrically charged antimatter particles we know how to contain them by
using 'electromagnetic traps'.
These traps make it possible to contain up to
about 1012 (anti-) particles of the same charge. However, like charges
each other. So it is not possible to store a much larger quantity of e.g.
antiprotons because the repulsive
forces between them would become too strong
for the electromagnetic fields to hold them away from the walls.
For electrically neutral anti-particles or anti-atoms, the situation is even
more difficult. It is impossible to use
constant electric or magnetic fields to
contain neutral antimatter, because these fields have no grip on the particles
at all. Scientists work on ideas to use 'magnetic bottles' (with inhomogeneous
magnetic fields acting on the
magnetic moment), or 'optical traps' (using
lasers) but this is still under development.
What is the
future use of antimatter?
Anti-electrons (positrons) are already used in PET scanners in medicine
Tomography = PET). One day it might be even possible to use
antiprotons for tumor irradiation.
at CERN is mainly used to study the laws of nature. We focus on
the question of the symmetry between matter and antimatter.
The LHCb experiment
will compare precisely the decay of b-quarks and anti-b-quarks. Eventually we
also hope to be
able to use anti-hydrogen atoms as high-precision tools.
Do antimatter atoms exist?
The team of the PS210
experiment at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at
CERN made the first anti-hydrogen atoms in 1995. Then, in 2002
(ATHENA and ATRAP) managed to produce tens of thousands of antihydrogen atoms,
later even millions.
However, although "tens of thousands" may sound a lot,
it's really a very, very small amount. You would
times that amount to have enough anti-hydrogen gas to fill a toy balloon!
could somehow store our daily production, it would take us several billion
years to fill the balloon. But the universe
has been around for only 13.7
billion years --- So the Angels and Demons scenario is pure fiction.
hope to use antimatter as a source of energy? Do you feel antimatter
could power vehicles in the future, or would it
just be used for major power
There is no possibility to use antimatter as energy 'source'. Unlike
energy, coal or oil, antimatter does not occur in nature; we first have to make
every single antiparticle,
and we have to invest (much) more energy than we get
back during annihilation.
You can imagine antimatter
as a storage medium for energy, much like you store
electricity in rechargeable batteries. The process of charging the
reversible with relatively small loss. Still, it takes more energy to charge the
battery than you get
The inefficiency of antimatter production is enormous: you get only a tenth of a
billion (10-10) of
the invested energy back. If we could assemble all the
antimatter we've ever made at CERN and annihilate it with
matter, we would have
enough energy to light a single electric light bulb for a few minutes.
I was hoping
antimatter would be the future answer to our energy needs. It seems
more research is needed for this to happen.
even more research will not change this situation fundamentally; antimatter
is certainly not able to solve our energy
problems. First of all, you need
energy to make antimatter (E=mc2) and unfortunately you do not get the same
of energy back out of it. (See above, the loss factors are enormous.)
Furthermore, the conversion from energy to
matter and antimatter particles
follows certain laws of nature, which also allow the production of many other,
very short-lived particles and antiparticles (e.g. muons, pions, neutrinos).
These particles decay rapidly during the
production process, and their energy is
Antimatter could only become a source of energy if you happened
to find a large
amount of antimatter lying around somewhere (e.g. in a distant galaxy), in the
same way we find
oil and oxygen lying around on Earth. But as far as we can see
(billions of light years), the universe is entirely made
of normal matter, and
antimatter has to be painstakingly created.
By the way, this shows that the symmetry
between matter and antimatter as stated
above does not seem to hold at very high energies, such as shortly after the
Bang, as otherwise there should be as much matter as antimatter in the Universe.
Future research might tell
us is how this asymmetry came about.
Can we make antimatter bombs?
No. It would take billions of years to
produce enough antimatter for a bomb
having the same destructiveness as 'typical' hydrogen bombs, of which there
exist more than ten thousand already.
Sociological note: scientists realized that the atom bomb was a real
possibility many years before one was actually built and exploded, and then the
public was totally surprised and amazed.
On the other hand, the public somehow
anticipates the antimatter bomb, but we have known for a long time that it
be realized in practice.
Why has antimatter received no media attention?
It has received a lot of media attention,
but usually in the scientific press.
Also, antimatter is not 'new'. Antiparticles have been known and studied
years. What is new is the possibility to produce anti-hydrogen atoms, but this
is also mainly a matter of
Is antimatter truly 100% efficient?
It depends on what you mean by efficient. If you
start from two equal
quantities m/2 of matter and m/2 of antimatter, then the energy output is, of
E=mc2. Mass is converted into energy with 100% efficiency.
But that is not the point: how much effort do you have
to put in to get m/2
grams of antimatter? Well, theoretically E=mc2 because half of the energy will
matter. So you gain nothing.
But the process of creating antimatter is highly inefficient; when you dissipate
energy into particles with mass, many different - also short-lived - particles
and antiparticles are produced. A major
part of the energy gets lost, and a lot
of the stable antimatter-particles (e.g. positrons and antiprotons) go astray
before you can catch them. Everything happens at nearly the speed of light, and
the particles created zoom off in all
directions. Somewhat like cooking food
over a campfire: most of the heat is lost and does not go into the cooking of
the food, it disappears as radiation into the dark night sky. Very inefficient.
Do you make antimatter as described
in the book?
No. The production and storage of antimatter at CERN is not at all as described
in the book: you cannot
stand next to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and see it
come out, especially since the LHC accelerator is not yet in
To make antiprotons, we collide protons at nearly the speed of light (to be
precise, with a kinetic
energy of about 25 GeV) with a block of metal, e.g.
copper or tungsten. These collisions produce a large number of particles,
of which are antiprotons. Only the antiprotons are useful, and only those that
fly out in the right direction.
So that's where your energy loss goes: it is
like trying to water a pot of flowers but with a sprinkler that sprays
whole garden. Of course, we constantly apply new tricks to become more efficient
at collecting antiparticles,
but at the level of elementary particles this is
Why then do you build the LHC?
reason for building the LHC accelerator is not to make antimatter but to
produce an energy concentration high enough
to study effects that will help us
to understand some of the remaining questions in physics. We say concentrations,
because we are not talking about huge amounts but an enormous concentration of
energy. Each particle accelerated in
the LHC carries an amount of energy
equivalent to that of a flying mosquito. Not much at all in absolute terms, but
it will be concentrated in a very minute volume, and there things will resemble
the state of the universe very shortly
(about a trillionth of a second) after
the Big Bang.
You should compare the concentration effect to what you
can learn about the
quality of a wooden floor by walking over it. If a large man wearing normal
shoes and a petite
woman wearing sharp stiletto heels walk over the same floor,
the man will not make dents, but the woman, despite her
lower weight, may leave
marks; the pressure created by the stiletto heels is far higher. So that is like
of the LHC: concentrate a little energy into a very minute space to
produce a huge energy concentration and learn something
about the Big Bang.
Does CERN have a particle accelerator 27 kilometers long?
The LHC accelerator is a ring
27 kilometers in circumference. It is installed in
a tunnel about 100 m underground. You can see the round outline of
it marked on
a map of the area.
In fact, why do you make antimatter at CERN?
The principal reason is
to study the laws of nature. The current theories of
physics predict a number of subtle effects concerning antimatter.
do not observe these predictions, then the theory is not accurate and needs to
be amended or reworked.
This is how science progresses.
Another reason is to get extremely high energy densities in collisions of matter
and antimatter particles, since they annihilate completely when they meet. From
this annihilation energy other interesting
particles may be created. This was
mainly how the Large Electron Positron (LEP) collider functioned at CERN until
2000, or the Tevatron currently operates at Fermilab near Chicago.
How is energy extracted from antimatter?
When a normal matter particle hits an antimatter particle, they mutually
annihilate into a very concentrated burst
of pure energy, from which in turn new
particles (and antiparticles) are created. The number and mass of the
products depends on the available energy.
The annihilation of electrons and positrons at low energies produces
(or three) highly energetic photons. But with annihilation at very high energy,
hundreds of new particle-antiparticle
pairs can be made. The decay of these
particles produces, among others, many neutrinos, which do not interact with the
environment at all. This is not very useful for energy extraction.
How safe is antimatter?
given the minute quantities we can make. It would be very
dangerous if we could make a few grams of it, but this would
take us billions of
If so, does CERN have protocols to keep the public safe?
There is no danger
from antimatter. There are of course other dangers on the
CERN site, as in any laboratory: high voltage in certain areas,
deep pits to
fall in, etc. but for these dangers the usual industrial safety measures are in
place. There is no
danger of radioactive leaks as you might find near nuclear
Does one gram of antimatter contain
the energy of a 20 kiloton nuclear bomb?
Twenty kiloton's of TNT is the equivalent of the atom bomb that destroyed
Hiroshima. The explosion of a kiloton (=1000 tons) of TNT corresponds to a
energy release of 4.2x1012 joules (1012
is a 1 followed by 12 zeros, i.e. a
million million). For comparison, a 60 watt light bulb consumes 60 J per
You are probably asking for the explosive release of energy by the sudden
annihilation of one gram of antimatter
with one gram of matter. Let's calculate
To calculate the energy released in the annihilation of 1
g of antimatter with 1
g of matter (which makes 2 g = 0.002 kg), we have to use the formula E=mc2,
where c is the
speed of light (300,000,000 m/s):
E= 0.002 x (300,000,000)2 kg m2/s2 = 1.8 x 1014 J = 180 x 1012 J. Since 4.2x1012
J corresponds to a kiloton of TNT, then 2 g of matter-antimatter annihilation
correspond to 180/4.2 = 42.8 kiloton,
about double the 20 kt of TNT.
This means that you 'only' need half a gram of antimatter to be equally
destructive as the Hiroshima bomb, since the other half gram of (normal) matter
is easy enough to find.
CERN we make quantities of the order of 107 antiprotons per second and there
are 6x1023 of them in a single gram of antihydrogen.
You can easily calculate
how long it would take to get one gram: we would need 6x1023/107=6x1016
are only 365 (days) x 24 (h) x 60 (min) x 60 (sec) = around 3x107
seconds in a year, so it would take roughly 6x1016
/ 3x107 = 2x109 = two billion
years! It is quite unlikely that anyone wants to wait that long.
Did CERN scientists
actually invent the Internet?
No. The Internet was originally based on work done by Louis Pouzin in France,
up by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn in the US in the 1970s. However, the Web was
invented and developed entirely by Tim Berners-Lee
and a small team at CERN
during 1989-1994. The story of the Internet and the Web can be read in 'How the
was born'. Perhaps not as sexy as Angels and Demons, but everything in 'How
the Web was born' was first-hand
testimony and research.
Does CERN own an X-33 spaceplane? Unfortunately not.
Here we talk about Extraterrestrials and their cultures. CERN LHC, Accelerator, Astro Astronomy, Bible
Code, Black Hole, Doomsday Earth Hadron, Particle Physics, Prophecy Revelation, Science Smash Space Star Technology, Universe
World Collider, Cosmology Higgs, Nostradamus Prophecies on CERN and 2012.
We the Earth Observers in Human Flesh also
have been called a New Hope for Humanity, Pioneers in Alientology study of UFO, Earth changes, Extraterrestrials, Mars
colony, Deep Underground Military Bases, Super Soldiers, GMO, Illuminati 4th Dimensional workings, Planet Nibiru, Global
Warming, Pole Shift of 2012, Life on MARS, U.S Bases on Moon and MARS, Alternative 3, Time travel, Telepathy, Teleportation,
Metaphysics, The Rainbow Project, Invisibility, Phoenix, Teleportation , Nicola Tesla. John Von Neumann, USS Eldrige, The
Montauk Chair, Dr, Wolf, Alternate Reality, Warping Space Time, HARRP and Weather Control, Alternate Time Lines, ET Taught
Military the Laser & Stealth Technology. Tesla Towers, Hollow Earth, Teleportation to the Planet MARS and NIBIRU, Time
travel back to Atlantis, how to build a Teleportation Machine, Under ground Extraterrestrial Bases, Tesla Arranges ET's
meeting, Pleiadians, Gray Reptilians, Arcturians, Tall Whites, Ancient Civilizations, Time Tunneling, Grey Alien projects,
Atlantis, Secret Society's, German Mars Projects, Nazi UFO, Nazi Gold and Fort Knox, Albert Einstein, Nicola Tesla, Anti
Christ using A.I and Micro chip Implants, Worm Holes, Space Time, Moon, Moon Landing, Rings of Saturn, Life on Venus, Time
Travel Machine Build by GE next 20 years, Weather Control, Psychic Frequency. Time Vortex, Face of Mars, Ancient Civilizations,
Mars Ruins, Telepathic Thought and Powers of the Mind, Artificial Intelligence, Et message of Islam, Islamophobia created
by Western Alliance to offset the Chinese and Soviet Balance of Power by creating the Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan during 80s.
Montauk Base, Zero Time frame Reference, Akashic location system, Ancient Religious artifacts in Iraq and MARS, Alien walkin's,
Jesus, Sci Fi UFO video in New York, Philadelphia Experiment. Subconscious mind, Video of FOX 11 news on Chicago OHRE UFO
Numerology and effect of numbers on mind: 0, 1, 110, 1111, 1112,
1119, 1911, 2111, 511, 711, 811, 911, 1212, 555, 786, 19, 2012, 999, 888, 777.
Current Cycle of Man ends as MAYAN CALENDAR ends on Sunday 12/ 21/ 2012. Watch your back on that Day!
Bob Lazar, John Lear, Mars Face, Mars Pyramid, Why we are not allowed to Teach and have Dept of UFOLOGY and
ET studies at University of Yale, Princeton, UCLA, USC, CAL TECH, MIT or Harvard?
the Alchemy of Happiness, evolution, Project Blue Book, Phoenix, ISIS, MERLIN, GRUDGE, MSN, or Live.com, Links to MSN Messenger,
Sightings, U.F.O, Yahoo mail,
REDSTAR, Sumerian cultures, Zero Point Energy, Projection of Realms, Online Auctions, Apollo Mission, Live Alien MSN
messenger, Look up a Hotmail Address, Book Reviews, Dan Burisch and video of J-ROD at AREA 51, S4 level and New Mexico DULCE
Alien Facility, Dalai LAMA & Tibet, China, There is no Oil shortages and global warming, Earth warming is due to arrival
of Planet of Crossing or Wormwood which is heating up the whole solar system, Saturn, Jupiter, Uranus, Mayan Calendar
ends year 2012 your time line is crossing get ready prepare for Contact, GOOGLE, You Tube UFO Videos, ALIEN
WEBBOT, MAYAN CALENDAR ENDS 2012, Big Foot, Milky way and the Big Bang, UFO photos & VIDEOS, Information page on ET Civilizations,
ALIEN videos, story of Real Aliens, picture of Aliens, Magnetic Pole Shift, ET CO-Operation in Iran and IRAQ, crystals, NIBIRU,
2012, METEORITE, DEEP IMPACT, EARTH GIANT, NEPHILIM, OBAMA The Egyptian King from Orion.
Do not travel in the Year 2012.
Join Our Worldwide Group